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Friday, April 14, 2006

Window class



In computer programming a window class is a structure fundamental to the Microsoft Windows (Win16 and Win32) operating systems and its Application Programming Interface (API). The structure provides a template, from which window (computing) may be created, by specifying a windows icons, menu, background color and a few other features. It also holds a pointer to a procedure that controls free adobe acrobathow the window behaves in response to user interaction. It finally tells the operating system how much additional storage space is needed for the class itself and for each window created from it. There have been two versions of window classes, the only non-technical addition brought by the second one adobe acrobat downloadis that of brendaw0aca small additional icon for acrobat reader free downloadthe free adobe acrobatwindow. The first version was present in baldwynu908the Windows acrobat reader download3.x series, the second version appeared in Windows free adobe acrobat95 and Windows NT 3.1.

Edwin Arlington Robinson



Edwin Arlington Robinson (December 22, 1869 - April 6, 1935) was an United States poet, who won three Pulitzer Prizes for his work. Born and raised in Maine to a wealthy family, he was the youngest of three sons and not groomed to take over the family business. Instead, he pursued poetry since childhood, joining the local poetry society as its youngest member. He attended Harvard, but his personal life was soon beset by a chain of tragedies that are reflected in his work. His father died, the family went bankrupt, one of his brothers became a morphine addict, and his mother contracted and eventually died from black diphtheria. Because of the acrobat readerhighly infectious nature of the disease, the local mortician was unwilling to even tend to the body, forcing Robinson and his brothers to bury her themselves. Shortly after, he met a woman, Emma Shepherd, with whom he fell deeply in love, but he was also convinced that marriage and familial responsibilities would hinder his work as a poet, so he introduced her to his eldest brother, who married her. Though this brother agreed to support Robinson (and did provide a modest monthly stipend for as long as he could with his bankrupt business), the relationship between the poet and his brothers wife was a source of tension between them. Later, his middle brother died, apparently a suicide. For several years, Robinson lived in poverty, continuing to write and publish with the help of his friends. His first break came in 1905, when President Theodore Roosevelt read one of Robinsons early works, Children of the Night. He was so impressed by it that he arranged a job for Robinson at a custom house, so that he could continue writing. Unfortunately, this was the least fecund period in his creative career, and when he lost the presidents patronage after Roosevelt term of office ended, his employers cracked down on Robinson until he eventually quit. Soon after, free acrobat readerhe adobe acrobatwrote The acrobat distillerTown down the River, which was critically acclaimed. In 1911, he found a patroness in the person of the widow of composer Edward MacDowell and worked to improve his poetry even further. He also attempted writing plays, but these were not well-received. Another, anonymous patron, who began supporting him in 1916 ensured that Robinson was financially self-sufficient. He began work on an King Arthur trilogy, Merlin, Lancelot, and Tristram. In 1922, Robinson received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his Collected Poems: He adobe acrobat 70won it again ardella1gpkin 1925 for The Man Who download adobe acrobat readerDied Twice and in 1928 for Tristram, the third part of his trilogy. With his new-found fame and fortune, he made a radical change in his lifestyle too, tending to himself and orahammvd50even starting to drink again, claiming that he was doing it to protest Prohibition. He published regularly until the day he died, in New York City in 1935. A song based on Robinsons poem Richard Cory was recorded by Simon and Garfunkel on their second album, Sounds of Silence.

Hesse Kassel



Hesse Kassel (Hessen-Kassel) was a Germany principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Graf Philip of Hesse and his eldest son Wilhelm IV chiquita46oyinherited the northern portion and established his capital in Kassel. The Landgraviate of Hesse Kassel expanded in 1604 when Landgrave Maurice inherited Hesse-Marburg from his uncle. During the Thirty Years War, Calvinist Hesse Kassel proved Swedens most loyal German ally. Landgrave Wilhelm V, and after his death in 1637, his widow, continued to support the France and Swedes throughout the war, and throughout maintained its own army, garrisoning many strongpoints, even while Hesse Kassel itself was occupied by Imperial troops. During the later 17th century and 18th century centuries, the Landgraves of Hesse Kassel became famous for hiring out their army as mercenaries. Landgrave Frederick II, notably, hired out his troops to his nephew George III of the acrobat downloadUnited Kingdom of Great Britain to suppress the rebellion of Britains American colonies, the American Revolution. The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation) of 1803 granted Landgrave Wilhelm IX the position of an Imperial prince-elector (Kurfürst) and took the free adobe acrobattitle Wilhelm I, Elector of Hesse. The principality thus became acrobat reader downloadknown as Kurhessen, although still usually referred to as Hesse Kassel. In 1806, Wilhelm I was dispossessed by Napoleon I of France for his support of Prussia, and Kassel became the capital of a new Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleons brother Jerome Bonaparte. The Elector was free adobe acrobatrestored as a result of download adobe acrobat readerNapoleons defeat in 1813, and although the Holy Roman Empire was now defunct, Wilhelm clung to his title of Elector, hoping it would give him pre-eminence over his cousin, the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. Wilhelms grandson, Elector Friedrich Wilhelm, sided with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, and as a result, his lands were annexed by Prussia after the war, forming, along with Nassau (duchy) baxter5gfpand Frankfurt-am-Main, the new Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. In 1918, Prince Friedrich Karl von Hessen of Hesse Kassel, younger brother of the head of the house and a brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, was selected by the Finland pro-German government to be Väinö I of Finland, but he never reigned. In 1968, the head of the House of Hesse Kassel became the Head of the entire House of Hesse due to the extinction of the Hesse-Darmstadt line.

Landgraves of Hesse Kassel, 1568-1803

Wilhelm IV 1568-1592
Maurice 1592-1627 (d.1632)
Wilhelm V 1627-1637
Wilhelm VI 1637-1663
Wilhelm VII 1663-1670
Karl 1670-1730
Frederick I of Sweden (since 1720 also King of Sweden) 1730-1751
Wilhelm VIII 1751-1760
Friedrich II 1760-1785
Wilhelm IX adobe acrobat reader free download1785-1803 (d.1821)

Electors of Hesse(-Kassel), 1803-1866

Wilhelm I 1803-1806 to the Kingdom of Westphalia, 1806-1813
Wilhelm I (restored) 1813-1821
Wilhelm II 1821-1847
Friedrich Wilhelm 1847-1866 (d.1875)

Heads of the House of Hesse Kassel, 1866-present

Elector Friedrich Wilhelm 1866-1875
Landgrave Friedrich 1875-1884
Landgrave Alexander Friedrich 1884-1925
Landgrave Friedrich Karl von Hessen 1925-1940
Landgrave Philipp 1940-1980
Landgrave Moritz 1980-present

Calculator



A calculator is a device for performing numerical calculations. It should not be confused with a calculating machine. Nowadays many people have a calculator with them as part of their mobile phone and/or personal digital assistant. Engineers and accountants make use of calculators for problems where a computation is not complex enough to demand the use of a general-purpose computer. Students use calculators for schoolwork. Also, some watches contain a calculator (although this was more a fad of the 1980s).

Overview

free acrobat readerToday calculators are electronic, and are made by numerous manufacturers, in countless shapes and sizes varying from cheap, give-away, credit-card sized models to more sturdy adding machine-like models with built-in printers. Only a very few companies develop and make modern professional engineering and finance calculators, the most well-known are Casio, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Texas Instruments (TI). Such calculators are good examples of embedded systems. In the past, mechanical and clerical aids such as abacus, comptometers, Napiers bones, books of mathematical tables, slide rules, adding machines, were used for serious numeric work, and the word calculator denoted a person (most often female) who did such work for a living using such aids as well as pen and paper. This semi-manual process of calculation was tedious and error-prone.

Electronic calculators

Today most calculators are handheld microelectronic devices, but in the past some calculators were as large as todays computers. The first mechanical calculators were mechanical desktop devices, which were soon replaced by electromechanical desktop calculators, and then by electronic devices using first thermionic valves, then transistors, then hard-wired integrated circuit logic. A pocket calculator is a small battery-powered or solar powered electronic digital computer made possible by integrated circuit and semiconductor technology. Typically they are limited to an 8–10 digit single-number display and a few basic functions of arithmetic, but some modern ones have more of the features of a general-purpose computer. Pocket calculators rendered the slide rule obsolete. Calculators vary in their capabilities. Some are limited to only basic arithmetic, others support trigonometric function and other list of functions. The most advanced modern calculators are programmable, can display graphics, and include features of computer algebra systems.

History

In 1954, IBM demonstrated a large all-transistor calculator. In 1957, IBM released the first commercial all-transistor calculator (the IBM 608). The first handheld calculators, as opposed to desktop ones, went on sale in 1970 with models from Japanese manufacturers Sharp and Canon weighing around 1.7 lb (770 g).

1970s to mid-1980s

The first pocket-sized calculator, the Bowmar 901B measuring 5.2×3.0×1.5 in (131×77×37 mm), came out in the fall of 1971, with four functions and an eight-digit red light-emitting diode display, for $240, while in August 1972 the four-function Clive Sinclair became the first slimline pocket calculator measuring 5.4×2.2×0.35 in (138×56×9 mm) and weighing 2.5 oz (70g). It retailed for around $150 (Pound Sterling79). By the end of the decade, similar calculators were priced less than $10 (GB£5). The first pocket calculator with scientific functions, i.e. the first slide rule-replacing model, was the 1972 HP-35 from Hewlett Packard, it, download adobe acrobat readeralong with all later HP engineering calculators, used reverse Polish notation (RPN) (where a adobe acrobat reader free downloadcalculation like 6 – 2 is performed by pressing 6, Enter, 2, and –, instead of algebraically: 6, –, 2,). Most common among early scientific calculators was the TI-30 from Texas Instruments. The first programmable hand-held calculator was the HP-65, in 1974, it had a capacity of 100 instructions, and could store and retrieve programs with a built-in magnetic card reader. A year later the HP-25C introduced continuous memory, i.e. programs and data were retained in memory during power-off. In 1979, HP released the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable calculator, the HP-41. It could be expanded with random-access memory (memory) and read-only memory (software) modules, as well as peripherals like bar code wands, cassette tape and floppy disk drives, paper-roll printers, and miscellaneous communication interfaces (RS-232, HP-IL, HP-IB).

Mid-1980s to date

The two leading manufacturers, HP and TI, released steadily more feature-laden calculators during the 1980s and 90s. At the turn of the millennium, the line between a graphing calculator and a PDA/ handheld computer was not always clear (forgetting the keyboard for the sake of the argument), as some very advanced calculators such as the TI-89 and HP-49G could derivative and integration function (mathematics)s, run word processing and Personal information manager software, and connect by wire or infrared to other calculators/computers. In March 2002, HP announced that the company would no longer produce calculators, which was hard to fathom for some fans of the companys products, the HP-48 range in particular had an extremely loyal customer base. Nevertheless, HP restarted their production of calculators in late 2003. The new models, however, reportedly didnt have the mechanical quality and sober design HPs earlier calculators were famous for (instead featuring the more youthful look and feel of contemporary competing designs from TI). The business calculator HP-12C is still produced. It was introduced in 1981 and is still being made with nearly no changes. In 2003 several new models were released, including an improved version of the HP-12C, the HP-12C platinum edition.

Trivia

The word calculator is occasionally used as a pejorative term to describe an inadequately capable general-purpose microcomputer. The synonym of this meaning is bitty box, as discussed in the Jargon file.
A curious episode of the mid 1970s was the infamous Melcor 635, a scientific calculator with a computer bug in its trigonometry functions. Because the CORDIC algorithms used in most calculators cannot compute the inverse functions of zero, these need to be hardcoded – and some engineer at Melcor got it wrong. For any input other than exactly zero, even for instance 1.0E-99, the calculator worked correctly, the user simply had to remember not acrobat readerto compute the trigonometric acrobat downloadfunction inverse functions of zero. The company discovered this after making 50,000 calculators. The upshot was an advertisement in Scientific American headlined Somebody Goofed, offering these calculators for sale at half-price.
As isabelle26gkmany schoolchildren and students know, some words and simple phrases can be written using an ordinary seven-segment display calculator, this involves entering certain numbers and then viewing the resulting words from the opposite side of the calculator/display. Typical words/phrases obtainable in this fashion are (not surprisingly, quite representative of the acrobat downloaddemographic in strong57syquestion):
BOOB 8008
BOOBIES 5318008
hEll 1134
gO2hEll 1134206

Professional Basketball League of America



The Professional Basketball League of America (1947-48) was a basketball league in the USA that was started in 1947 in sports in response to the tremendous upsurge in interest in basketball in the era immediately following World War II. The organization was underfunded compared to its competitors, the Basketball Association of America, the National Basketball League, and even acrobat readerthe American Basketball League 1925-55, there was simply free adobe acrobat readernot room in the marketplace acrobat reader downloadfor four major professional basketball leagues. The PBLA folded without completing its only season. free acrobat readerPBLA Teams:
Atlanta Crackers
Birmingham Skyhawks
Chattanooga Majors
Chicago Gears
Grand laurag23bRapids marlyssajbotacrobat downloadRangers
Houston Mavericks
Kansas City Blues
Louisville Colonels
New Orleans Hurricanes
Oklahoma City Drillers
Omaha Tomahawks
Saint Joseph Outlaws
Saint Paul Saints
Springfield Squires
Tulsa Ranchers
Waterloo Pro-Hawks

James Quin



James Quin (February 24, 1693 - January 21, 1766), England actor of Ireland descent, was born in London. He was educated at Dublin, and probably spent a short time at Trinity College. Soon after his fathers death in 1710, he staceys10jmade his first appearance on the stage at Abel in Sir Robert Howards The Committee at the Smock Alley Theatre. Quins first London engagement was in small parts at Drury Lane, and he secured his first triumph at Bajazet in Nicolas Rowes Tamerlane, on November 8 1715. The next year he appeared as Hotspur at Lincolns Inn, where he remained for fourteen years. On July 10, 1718 he was convicted of manslaughter for having killed Bowen, another actor, in a duel which the victim had himself provoked. Quin was not severely punished, the affair being regarded as more of an accident than a crime. The public took a similar view of another episode in which Quin, on being attacked by a young actor who had been angered by the sarcastic criticism of his superior, drew upon him and killed him. But if he was eager in his own defence he was no less so in that of others. In 1721 a drunken nobleman reeled on to the stage of the theatre and assaulted the manager, Rich, whose life was saved by Quins prompt armed interference. This resulted in a riot, and thereafter a guard was stationed in all theatres. In 1732 Quin appeared at Covent Garden, returning to Drury Lane from 1734 to 1741, and in 1742 was again at Covent Garden, where he remained until the close of his career. On November 14, 1746 Quin played Horatio and David Garrick Lothario to the Calista of Mrs Cibber in Roses Fair Penitent. The applause of the audience was so great as to disconcert if not actually to alarm the two actors. Public interest was yet more keenly stimulated in comparing Garricks and Quins impersonations of Richard III (play), the popular verdict being loudly in favor of Garrick. But Quins Falstaff in Henry IV, part 1 was emphatically preferred to the Hotspur of his rival. In consequence of an attempt made by Garrick in 1750-51 to draw him away from Covent Garden, Quin was enabled to extort from his manager a salary of £1000 a year, the highest figure then reached in the profession. Quins last regular appearance was on May 15, 1757, as Horatio in the Fair Penitent, though in the following year he twice played Falstaff for the benefit of friends. He had retired to Bath, where he lived a gretchenx395happy life, with late hours and much eating and drinking, until his death on the 21st of January 1766. He was buried in the abbey church at Bath. Some coolness which had arisen between Quin and Garrick before the formers retirement was dissipated on their subsequent meeting at Chatsworth at the William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshires, and Quin paid many a visit to Garricks villa at Hampton in the latter part of his life. The epitaph in verse on his tomb was written by Garrick. Quins will displayed a generous nature, and among numerous bequests was one of fifty pounds to Mr Thomas Gainsborough, limner. In the Garrick Club in London are two portraits of the actor ascribed to Hogarth, and a portrait by Gainsborough is in Buckingham Palace. His personality was not gracious. His jokes were coarse, his temper irascible, his love of food, his important airs, and his capacity for deep drinking do not command respect, on the other hand, a few of his jokes acrobat reader free downloadwere excellent, and there was no adobe acrobat free downloadrancour in him. On many occasions he showed his willingness to help persons in distress. His acrobat reader downloadcharacter is summarized by Tobias George Smollett in Humphrey Clinker. As an actor his manner was charged with an acrobat distillerexcess of gravity and deliberation, his pauses were so portentous as adobe acrobat downloadin some situations to appear even ludicrous, but he was well fitted for the delivery of John Miltons poetry, and for the portrayal of the graver roles in his repertory. 1911